ZANTHOXYLUM RHETSA (Roxb.) DC.

Family: Rutaceae

Synonyms: Z. budrunga (Roxb.) DC., Z. limonella (Dennst.) Alston.

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Bazinali, Kantahorina, Tambol, Badrang; Bazna (Chittagong, Dhaka); Bajrang (Sylhet).

Description of the Plant:
A medium-sized, deciduous, aromatic tree with pale corky bark, covered with conical prickles on trunk and branches. Leaves pari- or imparipinnate, somewhat crowded at the end of branchlets, 30-75 cm long; rachis armed with some small prickles; leaflets 5-20 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, 7-15 cm long. Flowers small, appear with new leaves, greenish yellow, in large crowded terminal or subterminal, trichotomous cymes. Fruit small, 5 mm diam., globose, orange when ripe.

Using information:
The fruit and stem bark are aromatic, stimulant, astringent, stomachic and digestive; prescribed in urinary diseases, dyspepsia, diarrhoea and with honey in rheumatism. Fruits are appetiser; useful in cholera, asthma, bronchitis, heart troubles, piles and toothache; relieves hiccup. The carpels yield an essential oil, which is given in cholera. The seed oil is antiseptic and disinfectant; applied on inflammatory dermatosis. The seed oil is used in dry eczema and dandruff of children in Jointiapur of Sylhet. The root barks have cholinergic, hypoglycaemic and spasmolytic activity.

Most of the secondary metabolites present in the plant possess antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties (Ghani, 2003).

Chemical constituents:
Bark contains alkaloids, budrungaine, budrugainine, rhetine, chelerythrine, rhetsine, evodiamine, rhetsine and lupeol (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990). Fruit kernel and flowers contain essential oil composed of monoterpenes, d-terpinene, β-pinene, d-α-phellandrene, d-α-dihydrocarveol, dl-carvotanacetone, 4-carene, and 4-terpineol. Seeds are rich in proteins, fat, fatty acids and minerals. Canthine-6-one. 6-methoxydi-hydrochelerythrine, 3-xanthyletin, 5-dimethoxy-4-geranyloxy cinnamic alcohol, 8-methoxy N-methylflindersine and sesamin have been isolated from the stem bark. α-,β-,γ-, hydroxyl-α-, hydroxyl-β- and hydroxy-γ-sanshhools and an amide have been isolated from the fruits. In addition the fruits, seeds, stem bark and heart wood contains furoquinoline and indolequinazoline alkaloids and terpenoids (Ghani, 2003). A new triterpene ketone – xanthoxylone and a new monoterpene triol have also been isolated from the plant (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).


Zanthoxylum Rhetsea
ZANTHOXYLUM RHETSA (Roxb.) DC.


Distribution:
Sylhet, Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar, Gazipur and Tangail.


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