Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms: X. strumarium L., X. orientale L.

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Ghagra, Banokra, Lehra, Bichaphal.

Tribal Name: Lengra (Chakma); Son Keng (Bowm).

English Name: Cocklebur, Burweed.

Description of the Plant:
A coarse annual about a metre or more high. Leaves numerous, 5-7.5 cm long and almost as broad as long, broadly triangular-ovate or suborbicular, acute, often 3-lobed, rough with appressed hairs, irregularly inciso-serrate. Heads in terminal and axillary racemes. Fruit ovoid, about 1.6 cm long, with 2 erect mucronate beaks, thickly clothed with usually hooked prickles.

Using information:
The plant is diaphoretic, sedative, sudorific, diuretic, sialagogue and depressant to central nervous system; considered useful in long standing malaria. Decoction of the plant is useful in urinary and renal complaints, in gleet, leucorrhoea and menorrhagia. The plant is also useful as a styptic and is considered prophylactic against hydrophobia. Roots are useful in cancer and strumous diseases. Fruits are cooling and demulcent. The ash of fruit is applied to sores of lip and mucous membrane of the mouth. The seeds are used for resolving inflammatory swelling and seed oil for treating bladder affections, herpes and erysipelas. The leaves are administered internally in scrofula and herpes. Leaves are also given for malaria in Khagrachari. Xanthin isolated from the aerial parts showed CNS depressant activity (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990).


Chemical constituents:
Heptacosanol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and its glucoside, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, KCl, KNO3 and K2SO4 have been isolated from roots and stems. Leaves contain xanthumin, isohexacosane, chlrobutanol, stearyl alcohol, β-sitosterol, palmitic acid, strumasterol, oleic acid, 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, β-sitosterol-D-glucoside and KCl. Leaves contain α- and γ-tocopherols and plastoquinone. Essential oil of the plant contains d-Limonene, d-carveol, terpinolene, β-caryophyllene, p-cymene and α-pinene. β-Sitosterol glucoside (Strumaroside), stigmasterol, polyphenols, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 1,3,5-tri-O-caffeoyl quinic acid have been isolated from the fruits. Seeds contain a glucoside, xanthostrumarin and oxalic acid. Four xanthnolides viz., tomentosin, 8-epi-xanthatin-l β-5 β-epoxide, xanthumin and 8-epi-xanthin have been isolated from the aerial parts. Plant also contains xanthatin, xanthinin, two new sesquiterpene lactones – xanthanol and isoxanthanol and choline (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990 & 93; Ghani, 2003).

All over Bangladesh in fallow lands.

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Retutn from XANTHIUM INDICUM to Medicinal Plants: Part W-X