Family: Verbenaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Nishinda, Bara Nishinda, Nigunda, Samalu, Nirgundi; Hing-rain (Sylhet).

Tribal Name: Niramisludi (Chakma); Soyin Ma Pata (Tanchangya).

English Name: Chaste Tree.

Description of the Plant:
A large aromatic, evergreen to semi-evergreen shrub or small tree. Leaves digitately 3 or 5-foliate; leaflets lanceolate, 4-12 cm long, coarsely toothed, base cuneate. Flowers in pedunculate branched, tomentose cymes, opposite along the quadrangular rachis of a large, terminal panicles, up to 30 cm long; corolla 1 cm long, bluish-purple. Fruit a drupe, ovoid, size of a small pea, black when ripe.

Using information:
Leaves are tonic, vermifuge, antiparasitic, alterative and anodyne; relieve catarrh and headache and effective against inflammatory swellings of the joints due to acute rheumatism. Leaf Juice removes foetid discharges and worms from ulcers. A decoction of the leaves along with long pepper is given in catarrhal fever with heaviness of head and dullness of hearing. Leaf juice mixed with oil is applied to sinuses and scrofulous sores. A vapour bath prepared from the leaves is used for treating febrile, catarrhal and rheumatic affections. Leaves are used for diarrhoea in Rema-Kalenga. Leaf-boil water is used for bath to relieve post-partum pains in Jointiapur of Sylhet. Leaves are used for asthma and hair growth in Khagrachari. Roots are tonic, febrifuge, expectorant and diuretic. Fruits are nervine, cephalic and emmenagogue; dried fruit acts as a vermifuge. Flowers are astringent and cooling. Chloroform extract of the leaf possesses strong antibacterial properties against wide range of human pathogenic bacteria (Begum, 2001).


Chemical constituents:
Hentriacontane, sterols, β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol acetate, stigmasterol, ascorbic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, carotene and amino acids have also been isolated from this plant. Leaves contain a pale greenish yellow essential oil, an alkaloid, nishindine and a glucoside. Stem bark contains flavonoid glycosides of wogonin, aurosin, vitexin, myricetin, also luteolin, leucodelphinidin, luecocyanidin rhammoside, β-sitosterol, vanillic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (Ghani, 2003). n-Tritriacontane, n-hentriacontane, n-pentatriacontane, n-nonacosane, β-sitosterol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 5-oxyisophthalic acid have been isolated from seeds (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993). The plant extract contains estrogen, testosterone and progesterone, with concentrations of 947.7 pg/ml, 22.276 ng/ml and 6.022 ng/ml respectively. This high concentration of steroid hormones may contribute to its contraceptive action (Khan et al., 2006).

Throughout Bangladesh.

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Retutn from VITEX NEGUNDO to Medicinal Plants: Part U-V