TYLOPHORA INDICA (Burm.f.) Merr.

Family: Asclepiadaceae

Synonyms: T. asthmatica W. & A.

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Antamul.

English Name: Emetic Swallow-wort, Indian Ipecacuanha, Country Ipecacuanha.

Description of the Plant:
A slender twining perennial; stem not much branched. Leaves 5-10 cm long, ovate or elliptic-oblong, acute or acuminate, base usually cordate. Flowers small, greenish-yellow in umbellate cymes; peduncles from between the petioles. Fruit a follicle, 7.5-10 cm long, tapering to a fine point at the apex.

Using Information:
The roots and leaves are mostly used as expectorant for the treatment of cough, asthma, and bronchitis and experimentally found true of their expectorant properties. These also possess stimulant, cathartic, emetic, stomachic and diaphoretic properties; used in diarrhoea, rheumatism and gouty pains. The leaves are dried and made into pills, which are employed in dysentery. Ethanolic extract of the leaf possesses good antibacterial and poor antifungal properties (Taniya, 2004).

Chemical Constituents:
The plant contains a good number of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, including tylophorine, tylophorinine, tylophorinidine and septicine. It also contains cetyl alcohol, a phytosterol, wax, resin, coutchone, pigments, glucose, mineral salts, tannins, tetra-triacontanol, octacosanyl, octacosanoate, flavonoids, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, quercetin, kaempferol; sterols, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Roots have been found to contain p-methoxysalicyldehyde and essential oil (Ghani, 2003). (+)septicine and (+)isotylocrebrine have been isolated from fresh leaves. Leaves are also found to contain dehydrotylophorine, anhydrodehydrotylophorinine, anhydrodehydro-tylophorinidine, tylophorinine, tylophorinidine and tylophorine. Tylophorinine content in leaves is a function of plant growth phase and is highest during flowering period. γ-fagarine and skimmianine have also been isolated from roots and aerial parts (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).


TYLOPHORA INDICA
TYLOPHORA INDICA (Burm.f.) Merr.


Distribution:
Chittagong, Dhaka, Mymensingh, Tangail, Cox’s Bazar. Comilla. Khulna. Patuakhali.


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Retutn from TYLOPHORA INDICA to Medicinal Plants: Part T