TERMINALIA BILLIRICA (Gaertn.)Roxb.

Family: Combretaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Bahera, Boira.

Tribal Name: Sacheng (Mogh); Bora-gach (Chakma); Bol-suiri (Garo); Ka Sing Ba, Cha Ching Ti, Soi Sing Si (Marma); Boya gula (Tanchangya).

English Name: Belaric myrobalan.

Description of the Plant:
A large deciduous tree, 10-20 m high, with tall trunk and long horizontal branches. Leaves 10-20 cm long, alternate, clustered at the end of branchlets, obovate or broadly elliptic, acute or acuminate, base narrowed. Flowers greenish-yellow, small in simple axillary spikes, shorter than the leaves. Fruit a drupe about 2.5 cm long, globose or narrowed at the base, silky-brownish-velvety.

Using Information:
Fruits are laxative, astringent, anthelmintic and antipyretic; useful in hepatitis, bronchitis, asthma, dyspepsia, piles, diarrhoea, coughs, hoarseness of voice, eye diseases and scorpion-sting; used as a hair tonic. Decoction of the green fruit is used for cough. Pulp of the fruit is useful in dysenteric-diarrhoea, dropsy, piles and leprosy. Half ripe fruit is used as purgative. Kernel of the fruit is narcotic. Fruits are used in menstrual disorder in Khagrachari. Seed oil is used in rheumatism. Gum of the bark is demulcent and purgative.

The triterpenoid present in the fruits possess significant antimicrobial activity. Kernel oil has purgative action and its prolonged use was well tolerated in mice (Ghani, 2003).

Chemical Constituents:
Fruits contain tannins, which is composed of gallotannic and ellagitannic acids, phyllemblin, β-sitosterol, mannitol, sugars, hydrocarbons, tirtriacontanone, tetratriacontane, a hexahydroxy diphenic acid ester, ditriacontanol, resins and a greenish yellow oil containing palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. Presence of three glycosidal compounds, a saponin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ethyl gallate, chebulagic acid, mannitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, rhamnose, a new cardenolides type cardiac glycoside (bellericanin) have also been reported in fruits. Heartwood and bark contain ellagic acid; bark also contains substantial amount of oxalic acid. Seed coat contains gallic acid. The triterpenoids arjungenin, tomentosic acid, belleric acid, bellericagenin, bellericagenin A, bellericagenin B, bellericoside, bellericaside A, bellericaside B and arjunglucoside l have also been isolated from this plant (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).


Terminalia Belirica
TERMINALIA BILLIRICA (Gaertn.)Roxb.


Distribution:
Forests of Gazipur, Sherpur, Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar, Tangail and planted elsewhere.


Submit Your Contribution

Retutn from TERMINALIA BILLIRICA to Medicinal Plants: Part T