SYZYGIUM CUMINI (L.) Skeel.

Synonyms: Eugenia cumini L., Eugenia jambolana Lam.

Family:Myrtaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Jam, Kalojam, Kalajam.

Tribal Name: Chaku, Sabri (Mogh); Mojibaong, Musbrisi, Sochi Tobri (Marma).

English Name: Black Plum, Jambolan, Java Plum, Indian black-berry.

Description of the Plant:
A large evergreen or semi-deciduous tree. Leaves elliptic-oblong, 6-15 cm long, acuminate, entire, secondary veins closely parallel. Flowers greenish white, sessile in compound trichotomous cymes on previous years branches. Fruit a berry, about 2.5 cm long, oblong, black, juicy.

Using Information:
Bark is anthelmintic and astringent to the bowels; good for sore throat, bronchitis, asthma and dysentery; used in the preparation of gargles and mouth–wash. The bark is also used for toothache and blood dysentery in Khagrachari. Bark juice along with equal amount of fresh milk is taken in the early morning for three days to cure dysentery. The fresh bark juice is taken for stomach pain in Chittagong. Leaves are astringent; juice along with other astringents cures dysentery. Juice of the ripe fruit is general tonic, tonic to the liver, stomachic, carminative and diuretic. Vinegar, prepared from the juice of ripe fruit, is stomachic, carminative and diuretic. Seeds are astringent to the bowels and diuretic; good for diabetes; it is also used for Jaundice in Rema-Kalenga.

Seed powder given in a dose of 12 g daily in three divided doses for three months showed marked symptomatic relief in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Extract of the leaves possess antibacterial activity (Gani, 2003).


SYZYGIUM CUMINI
SYZYGIUM CUMINI (L.) Skeel.


Chemical constituents:
Leaves contain essential oil containing α-terpinene, β-pinene, β-phellandrene, terpinolene, myrcene, limonene, cadinene and methyl salicylate. They also contain sitosterol, betulinic and maslinic acids, paraffins, n-alkanes, heptacosane, nonacosane, triacontane, hentriacontane and aliphatic alcohols and oxalic, citric and glycolic acids, glucose and fructose. Flowers contain triterpenoids, ellagic acid and the flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin and isoquercitrin; acetyl olenolic acid, oleanolic acid and crotegolic acid. Flowers also contain myricetin-3-L-arabinoside, dihydromyricetin, quercetin-3-D-galactoside. Fruit pulp contains proteins, fat, carbohydrates and vitamins A, C, thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, folic acid and its conjugates, minerals and a number of anthocyanins. Seeds contain a pale yellow essential oil, tannins, a glycoside, jambolin, flavonoids, phenolic constituents, gallic, ellagic, caffeic, ferulic and hexahydroxydiphenic acids and ellagitannins. Stem bark contains kaempferol, kaempferol glucoside, quercetin, β-sitosterol glucoside, betulinic aid, friedelin, eugenin and tannins, resins, starch and proteins. Effective hypoglycemic principles have been isolated from 95% alcoholic extract of dried seeds. An alkaloid, jambosine, has also been reported in this plant (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Distribution:
Planted all over Bangladesh.


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Retutn to Medicinal Plants: Part S