SOLANUM NIGRUM L.

Family: Solanaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Tit Begun, Phuti Begun, Gurki, Gurkamai, Kakmachi.

English Name: Black Night Shade, Common Night shade.

Description of the Plant:
An annual herb; stem much divaricately branched. Leaves 2.5-9 cm long, ovate-lanceolate, subacute or acuminate, entire or sinuate-toothed. Flowers small, white, in extra-axillary, subumbellate, 3-8 flowered cymes. Berry 6 mm diam., globose, purplish black when ripe.

Using Information:
Plant is alterative, sedative, diaphoretic, diuretic and hydragogue; given in chronic enlargement of the liver, piles and dysentery. Plant is also beneficial against skin diseases and remedy for anthrax pustules. Fruits are tonic, diuretic and aphrodisiac; useful in anasarca, heart diseases, hiccup, asthma, fever, diarrhoea and bronchitis. Paste of the green fruit is applied to ringworm. Syrup of the fruit is expectorant and diaphoretic; used as a cooling drink in fevers. Seeds are laxative; useful in giddiness, gonorrhoea, thirst and inflammations.

Leaves and young stems also have similar properties. Decoction and also aqueous extract of the leaves is very useful in dropsy for its diuretic action. Young shoots are given in skin diseases, and are very useful in psoriasis. The Chinese employ the leaf juice to alleviate the pain in inflammation of the kidneys and bladder, and in virulent gonorrhoea. Solanine contained in the seeds is a powerful protoplasmic poison, acting upon amoeboid organisms and ciliated epithelial cells.

EtOH(50%) extract of the plant at the dose of 50 mg/100g P.O. significantly lowered the lipid level and prevented development of fatty liver in albino rats. Juice of the fresh leaves produce dilation of the pupil (Ghani, 2003).


SOLANUM NIGRUM
SOLANUM NIGRUM L.


Chemical Constituents:
Leaf is a rich source of riboflavin. It also contains nicotininic acid and vitamin C, β-carotene, citric acid, protein, fat, steroidal glycol-alkaloids, solasonine and solamargine. Fruits contain saponins and the steroidal glycol-alkaloids, solanine, solamargine, solasonine, α - & β -solanigrine and the aglycone, solasodine, steroidal genin, trigogenin. Seeds contain solanine, protein, greenish-yellow oil consisting of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids and sitosterol (Ghani, 2003). Solasodine (0.02%) has beeen isolated from the roots of Nepalese plant (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Distribution:
All over Bangladsh in fallow lands.


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Retutn to Medicinal Plants: Part S