PUNICA GRANATUM L.

Family: Punicaeae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Dalim, Anar, Bedana.

English Name: Pomegrante.

Description of the Plant:
A large deciduous shrub, often armed. Leaves opposite, 3.5-5 cm long, oblong-oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, entire. Flowers 3.8-5 cm long and as much across, bright red, mostly solitary, sometimes 2-4 together. Fruit a globose berry, 3.8-7.5 cm across, tipped with the calyx-limb.

Using Information:
Unripe fruits are good appetizer and tonic; rind of the fruit is useful in the treatment of diarrhoea and chronic dysentery; decoction of the rind followed by a purgative, acts as an anthelmintic. A decoction of the dried fruit rind is drunk for the relief of stomachache and dysentery, while an infusion of the same material is taken for colitis. Fruit juice is cooling; cures dyspepsia. The seeds are considered stomachic and the pulp is cardiac tonic and stomachic. The stem bark is astringent; strengthens gums; used in piles, prolapsus ani and colic. Root bark is very astringent; decoction is used specifically for tapeworm (Yusuf et al. 2009).

Methanolic extract of fruit rind exhibits significant antibacterial activity. Extract of the fruit inactivates several intestinal viruses, herpes simplex virus and polio virus (Ghani, 2003). Alcohol extract showed significant biological activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Walia et al., 2007). Rind of the fruit was found highly effective and safe for the treatment of loose motion in clinical trial (Ahmad et al., 2006).

Chemical Constituents:
Different parts of the plant, particularly the bark, fruit rind and fruit juice, contain alkaloids pelletierine isopelletierine, pseudopelletierine and methyl-isopellerierine, sorbitol, mannitol, glucose, fructose, sucrose, isoquercetin, β-sitosterol, friedelin, estrone, pectin, triterpenoids, ellagitannins (about 25%), citric acid (about 9%), oxalic acid, calcium, phosphorus, iron, sodium and potassium. Leaves contain betulic and ursolic acids and β-sitosterol. Flowers contain sitosterol, ursolic, maslinic, asiatic, acetic, ellagic and gallic acids. Fruit pericarp contains tannin, ellagic, citric and ursolic acids.


PUNICA GRANATUM
PUNICA GRANATUM L.


The presence of a hemorrhoidal compound has been reported from the pericarp. Fruit juice contains sucrose, pectin, carotenoids, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, vitamin C, thiamine and riboflavine. Stem bark contains D-mannitol, friedelin, oxime, oxime acetate, 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone and pelletierine. Root bark contains four alkaloids, pseudopelletierine and three other basic components. The plant has also been reported to contain a hypoglycaemic agent, penta-O-galloyl- β-glucose along with ellagic acid and glucosides (Ghani, 2003). Two tannins-punicalagin and punicalin also have been isolated from the pericarp of the fruit (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Distribution:
Planted throughout the country.


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Retutn from PUNICA GRANATUM to Medicinal Plants: Part P