PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA L.

Family: Plumbaginaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Chitrak, Chita, Chitra, Shet Chita; Sisilimili (Rema-kalenga).

Tribal Name: Tidi, Kadsibang (Chakma); Kain Kawk (Marma); Aigga tutrha (Garo).

English Name: Ceylon Leadwort; White Leadwort.

Description of the Plant:
A perennial rambling herb, 0.6-1.5 m tall. Leaves 3.8-7.5 cm long, ovate, subacute, entire, glabrous. Flowers white, in elongate spikes; calyx 1-1.3 cm long, narrowly tubular, persistent, densely covered with stalked sticky glands. Corolla white, tube slender, 2-2.5 cm long, lobes 8 mm long, obovate-oblong, acute. Capsules oblong, pointed at both ends. 

Using information:
The plant is rubefacient, vesicant, local ecbolic and sudorific. Roots are astringent, diuretic expectorant, stomachic and abortifacient; used in piles, bronchitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, anasarca, leprosy, ringworm, scabies and other skin diseases.  It increases digestive power and promotes appetite. Root bark is used as sudorific and antipyretic. Juice is used in scabies and ulcers. Root paste is given for jaundice by the Chakma in Chittagong Hill Tracts. The root along with Calotropis gigantea and black pepper is given in stomachache in Jointiapur of Sylhet. The root contains an active priniple “Plumbagin” which has got antifertility properties; externally it is a stong irritant and has a powerful germicidal action. It stimulates muscular tissue in smaller doses and paralyses in larger doses. It also stimulates nervous system. The juice of the root bark along with a little ginger is given in blood dysentery by the tribal in Madhupur (Yusuf et al. 2009).

Ethanolic extract of the root possesses significant activities against wide range of pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi (Taniya, 2004). 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, Diisooctyl Ester isolated from root showed moderate to good antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria (Rahman et al., 2007). Plant extract (100mg/kg) prevented 100% ovulation and implantation in female rats (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993). The root extract possesses anti-inflammatory activity (Ghani, 2003).


PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA
PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA L.


Chemical constituents:
Roots and aerial parts principally contain plumbagin, a yellow naphthaquinone. Roots contain chitranone, zeylanone, maritinone, dihydrosterone maritinone, 2-methyl naphthaquin, a quinine, plumbazelanone and methylene di-plumbagin. Aerial parts contain plumbazelanone, a binaphthaquinone, chitanone and terpenoids, lupeol, α- and β-amyrin and γ-taraxesterol. The plant also contains a dihydroquinone, alkaloids, glycosides, tannin, saponins and steroids (Ghani, 2003). Roots also contain 3-chloroplumbagin, 3,3´-biplumbagin, zeylinone, isozeylinone, elliptinone and droserone (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Distribution:
Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts and Dhaka.


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Retutn from PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA to Medicinal Plants: Part P