PIPER NIGRUM L.

Family: Piperaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Golmarich, Kalimarich.

English Name: Black Pepper, Decorticated Pepper, Common Pepper.

Description of the Plant:
A stout, glabrous, long climber; stem terete, sparingly rooting, thickened at the nodes. Leaves coriaceous, 10-18 cm long, broadly ovate, acuminate, glabrous. Flowers in slightly interrupted glabrous spikes of variable length (5-15 cm). Fruit globose, 6 mm diam. or less, red when ripe.

Using Information:
Fruits are carminative, antiperiodic, rubefacient, stimulant and aphrodisiac; used for the treatment of cough and cold. It is also useful in the treatment of cholera, obstinate fevers, dyspepsia, constipation, piles, colic, gastric troubles, ascites, anaemia, worms, asthma, sore throats, toothache and skin diseases (Yusuf et al. 2009). Water extract of the fruit causes moderate relaxation of the isolated guinea-pig ileum and potentiates the relaxation of the Acetylcholine-induced contractions (Chakma et al., 2001).

Chemical Constituents:
Major constituents of the fruits are alkaloids. They contain up to 9% alkaloids, which include chavicine, β-methyl pyrroline, piperine, piperidine, depentine and piperovatine. They also contain a balsamic essential oil with β-bisabolene, camphene, β-caryophyllene and many other terpenes and sesquiterpenes, a pungent resin, chavicin, piperetine, lignin, gum piperyline, piperole A and B, piperanine monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, starch and fat. Volatile components of the essential oil are mainly mono-and sesquiterpenes, such as pinenes, sabinene, limonene, caryophyllene and myrcene. Pepper also contains oleoresin, gum, aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and fatty oil. The fruits have also been reported to contain safrole and tannic acid, in addition to other volatile and non-volatile constituents (Ghani, 2003). Sesquisabinene piperine, hentriacontan-16-one, hentriacontane and β-sitosterol have been isolated from stems. A new amide – pipercide has been isolated from fruits (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1993).


PIPER NIGRUM
PIPER NIGRUM L.


Distribution:
Cultivated in Sylhet.


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Retutn from PIPER NIGRUM to Medicinal Plants: Part P