PIPER LONGUM L.

Family: Piperaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Pipul, Pipla.

Tribal Name: Bhuth-shan (Chakma).

English Name: Long Pepper.

Description of the Plant:
A much-branched, slender creeper, with erect flowering shoots. Leaves numerous, 6.3-9 cm long, lower ones broadly ovate, very cordate, upper ones oblong-oval, cordate at base, all subacute, entire, glabrous; petiole of the lower leaves 5-7.5 cm, of the upper leaves very short or none. Spikes solitary, pedunculate, male slender, long, female short, thick. Fruit very small, ovoid, completely sunk in solid fleshy spike, which is 2.5-3.8 cm, ovoid-oblong.

Using Information:
Fruits are carminative, stimulant, diuretic, digestive, expectorant and tonic to the liver; used in the treatment of dyspepsia, coughs, colds, malaise, fever and pain in the joints; improves the appetite. The root is stomachic, carminative and anthelmintic; used for the treatment of bronchitis, headache and sleeplessness. Decoction of the dried immature fruit and the root is given in acute and chronic bronchitis attended with cough. The Chakma give stem extract with hot water to childrens to cure mumps (Yusuf et al. 2009). The oil showed antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990).

Chemical Constituents:
Fruits contain a pungent resin, essential oil, starch, alkaloids piperine, piperanine piplartine and two liquid alkaloids; triacontane, sesamin dihydrostigmasterol, piplasterol, sesquiterpenes, glycosides and sugars. Stems contain alkaloids, piperine. The pungent principle present in the fruit is capsaicin (Ghani, 2003). Piperlongumine, piperlonguminine, piperine, sesamin, methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate have been isolated from roots (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1993). Two monocyclic sesquiterpenes, bp. 235° and bp. 247° and a new sesquiterpenic hydrocarbon containing tetrasubstituted double bond have been isolated from essential oil (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990).


PIPER LONGUM
PIPER LONGUM L.


Distribution:
In shady floors of forest and village grove.


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