Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh
Medicinal Plants Database of Bangladesh includes the authentic Taxonomic Information, Vernacular/Bangla Name, Tribal and English Name, Family, Description and Photograph of the Plants, Chemical Constituents, Uses and Distribution of the species in Bangladesh. MPBD also contain dictionary of Botanical and Pharmacological terms.
Bengali/Vernacular Name: Tamak.
Tribal Name: Siah (Marma).
English Name: Tobacco.
Description of the Plant:
An erect glandular-pubescent herb. Leaves large, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, the lower semiamplexicaul and decurrent. Flowers rosy or reddish, pedicelled, 4-5 cm long, in many-flowered, usually panicled racemes. Capsule 1.5-1.8 cm long, a little longer than the calyx.
Leaves are sedative, narcotic, emetic, antispasmodic and fish poison; used for the treatment of rheumatic swellings, skin diseases and scorpion-sting. A decoction of the leaf is used as a fomentation to the spine in tetanus; induce muscular relaxation, reduce strangulated hernia and dislocations. An oinment made by simmering the leaves in lard is used in curing old ulcers and painful tumours. The dried leaf is used as a styptic. Nicotine has been recommened in tetanus and as an antidote to strychnine. Since harmful effects of tobacco outweigh its therapeutic actions, its use as a drug is now discouraged (Yusuf et al. 2009).
Tobacco leaf contains several pyridine alkaloids, the principal one being a liquid alkaloid, nicotine. Other alkaloids present include nicoteine, nicotimine, anabaine anatalline and nornicotine. It also contains a high percetntage of organic acids. Leaves also contain glucosides, tahacinin, tahacilin and iso-quercitrin, 1-quinic, chlorogenic, caffeic and oxalic acids. They also contain terpenic and carcinogenic substances (Ghani, 2003). Anatabine and (+) nornicotine have been isolated from roots. Quercetin-3,3´-dimethyl ether and quercetin-3-Me ether have been isolated from flowers.
Three new gibberellins-nicotiana α, β and γ along with gibberllins A and A3 have been isolated from shoot apices and flower buds. Seed contains cycloartanol, cycloartenol 24-daturadiol and solavetivone. Cholesterol, cholest-7-enol, 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, sitosterol, 28-isofucosterol, lanosterol, 31-norlanosterol, lanost-8-enol, obtusifoliol, 31-norcycloartenol, cycloeucalenol, granisterol, citrostadienol, β-amyrin, lepeol, cycloartanol and 24-methylenecycloartanol have also been reported in seed oil (Rastogi and Mehrotra, 1990 & 93).
Cultivated, especially in greater Rangpur and Chittagong Hill Trats.