MANGIFERA INDICA L.

Family: Anacardiaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Am.

Tribal Name: Tsasat, Ingsara (Mogh), Thakachu, Jegachu, Bochu (Garo); Sarock Apaong (Marma), Amm Gaith (Tanchangya).

English Name: Mango.

Description of the Plant:
A medium-sized to large, evergreen tree with spreading, large, dense crown. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branches, coriaceous, 12.5-25 cm, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute. Flowers small in large, many-flowered panicles, longer than the leaves. Drupes large, fleshy, obliquely pyriform or subovoid, subcompressed, 7.5-20 cm long; stone comprssed, very hard.

Using Information:
Decoction of the leaves is used in fever, diarrhoea and toothache. In Chittagong, young leaves are given in diarrhoea. The unripe fruit is astringent to the bowels; cures dysentery and urinary discharges; useful in ophthalmia and eruption. The rind of the fruit is astringent and also a stimulant tonic in debility of the stomach. The ripe fruit is astringent and laxative, and therefore very much useful in habitual constipation. The dried fruit slices is recommended as an antiscorbutic; soaked in water are given with molasses for the treatment of chronic dysentery. The seeds are astringent to the bowels; used in chronic diarrhoea and asthma.

The juice of the kernel, if snuffed, can stop nasal bleeding. The kernel is also anthelmintic; useful in bleeding piles and menorrhagia. The carnel along with chebulic myrobalan and little alum is given in dysentery in Jointiapur of Sylhet. The barks and kernels are astringent; used in haemorrhage, diarrhoea and other discharges. The bark is also styptic; stops vomiting and diarrhoea. The exudate latex from the blazed tree bark is considered antisyphilitic; useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, scabies and other cutaneous affections; applied on cracks in sole for few days for healing (Yusuf et al. 2009).
Mangiferin isolated from the plant has cardiotonic and diuretic properties (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990).

Chemical Constituents:
Polyphenol-xanthones, mangiferin (major component), isomangiferin and homomangiferin and other phenolics, which include fisetin, gallic acid, astragallin, ellagic acid, β-glucogallin, a gallotannin, quercetin, isoquercetin and minerals are present in the leaves. Glucose, galactose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose and tannins have also been isolated from leaves. They also contain a pentacyclic terpene, indicol, two hydrocarbons, β-sitosterol, sugars and a glycosidic substance. Leaves yield a volatile oil containing methyl, ethyl, propyl, amyl and isobutyl alcohols and ethyl acetate and a number of terpenes.


MANGIFERA INDICA
MANGIFERA INDICA L.


Bark contains high percentage of tannins. Flowers yield an essential oil. Roots contain mangiferin, friedelin, β-sitosterol and two chromones. Fruit contain folic acid and its conjugates, palmitic and palmitoleic acids. Protocatechuic acid, catechin, m-digallic acid, m-trigallic acid, butin, leucocyanidin and triterpenic acid – mangiferolic acid, isomangiferolic acid, hydroxymangiferolic acid, mangiferonic acid, hydroxymangiferonic acid, ambonic acid and ambolic acid have been isolated from different parts of the plant (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990).

Distribution:
Cultivated throughout Bangladesh.


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Retutn from MANGIFERA INDICA to Medicinal Plants: Part M