JATROPHA CURCAS L.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Bagh Verenda, Ban Verenda, Chanda, Jamalgota, Sadajeol, Baron; Arenda (Chittagong).

English Name: Barbados Nut, Physic Nut, Poison Nut.

Description of the Plant:
A large deciduous shrub with sucullent stem. Leaves 10-15 cm long, broadly ovate, cordate, acute, usually palmately 3- or 5-lobed. Flowers 7.5 mm across, yellowish-green, in loose, axillary, cymose panicles, 5-12.5 cm long. Fruit 2.5 cm long, ovoid.

Using Information:
Seeds are poisonous. Both roasted seed and seed oil is purgative, more drastic than those of Ricinus communis; applied topically in rheumatism, herpes and pruritus. The twigs are used for tooth brushing when the gums are swollen. The sap of the plant and leaves are styptic; applied to wounds and refractory ulcers; very effective in the treatment of scabies, eczema, ringworm and toothache. Hot infusion of the young leaves is drunk to cure fever. Decoction of leaves is antidiarrhoeal; used in stomachache and in cough. The roots are given as emetic and purgative. The stem is chewed as a remedy for toothache in Jointiapur of Sylhet (Yusuf et al. 2009).

EtOH extract of defatted leaves and twigs is active in vivo and in vitro against p-388 lymphocytic leukemia. EtOH(50%) extract of aerial parts is CNS depressant and diuretic (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Chemical Constituents:
Seeds contain a poisonous fixed oil with a disagreeable taste, which is more purgative than castor oil. The oil contains oleic, linoleic (27.2%), myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic acids. Glucose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose have also been detected in seeds. Ash of seeds contains Ca, Mg, Na, K, and traces of P. They also contain a blood poison toxalbumin, curcin, caseine, dulcitol, β-sitosterol and glucoside. Stem bark contain β-amyrin, taraxerol and β-sitosterol. Leaves contain apigenin, vetexin, isovitexin, flavonoid glycosides a dimmer of a diterpene alcohol, α-amyrin, stigmasterol and stigmastenes, β-sitosterol. β-Sitosterol-β-glucoside, 7-keto-β-sitosterol, stigmast-5-en-3β,7α-diol, stigmast-5-en-3β,7β-diol, campesterol and 1-triacontanol have also been isolated from the plant (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990 & 93; Asolkar et al., 1992).


JATROPHA CURCAS
JATROPHA CURCAS L.


Distribution:
Throughout the country, grown as a live fence in the villages.


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