Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh
Medicinal Plants Database of Bangladesh includes the authentic Taxonomic Information, Vernacular/Bangla Name, Tribal and English Name, Family, Description and Photograph of the Plants, Chemical Constituents, Uses and Distribution of the species in Bangladesh. MPBD also contain dictionary of Botanical and Pharmacological terms.
Bengali/Vernacular Name: Tokma, Ganja Tulsi, Bilati Tulsi; Kusmai (Rema-Kalenga).
Tribal Name: Chongadana (Chakma); Chang Kasey (Marma); Thukma (Tanchangya).
Description of the Plant:
A tall, coarse, aromatic, annual herb, up to 2 m high, with 4 angled stems. Leaves ovate, sinuate and crenate-denticulate, hairy, lower 11.5 by 9 cm. Flowers small, blue in axillary racemiform cymes or cymes collected into thyrsiform almost leafless panicles. Nutlets compressed ovoid, oblong.
The plant is stimulant, carminative, sudorific and lactagogue; infusion is used in catarrhal conditions, affections of the uterus and parasitical cutaneous diseases. Leaves are used in cancer and tumour. Juice of the leaf is considered to be antispasmodic and antirheumatic; given in cases of colic and stomachaches; infusion is given in fever. The seeds allay thirst; given internally with sherbet in case of habitual constipation and in internal piles as a substitute for true Tokma (seed of Ocimum basilicum). Seeds and leaves are used in Rema-Kalenga for stomachache. Seed extract is taken by the Chakma for the remedy of urinary complications (Yusuf et al. 2009).
Juice of plant showed 100% antiimplantation activity in female rats. Essensial oil possesses antibacterial properties (Asolkar et al., 1992). Alcoholic extract of leaves at 125mg/kg showed 100% antifertility effect in female rats (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).
Leaves twigs and flowers yield an essential oil containing β-caryophyllens, cineol, terpenol, α-bergamotene, sabinene, menthol, l-sabinene, d-limonene and azulenic sesquiterpenes. Leaves and flowers also contain campesterol and fucosterol. Seeds contain anti-A haemagglutinin (Ghani, 2003). Roots contain β-sitosterol, oleanolic and α-peltoboykinolic acids (Asolkar et al., 1992). Two new diterpenes suaveolic acid and suaveolol have also been isolated from this plant (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).
Plenty in Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, also in fallow lands of other areas.