Family: Verbenaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Gamari, Gamar, Gamri; Joginichakra (Mymensingh).

Tribal name: Gambhar, Bol-kobak (Garo); Ramani (Mogh); Remeniba (Marma); Gamber (Chakma); Gamari Gaith (Tanchangya).

English name: Chandahar Tree, Cashmere Tree, Comb Teak, White Teak.

Description of the plant:
A medium-sized deciduous tree. Leaves 10-20 cm long, broadly ovate, acuminate, entire. Flowers appearing with or before the young leaves, usually in small cymes of about 3 flowers, arranged in a panicle, reaching 30 cm long. Corolla brownish yellow, reaching 3.8 cm long, 5-lobed, 2-lipped. Drupe 2-2.5 cm long, ovoid or pyriform, orange-yellow when ripe.

Using information:
Juice of the young leaves is used as a demulcent in gonorrhoea and cough. Flowers are astringent; useful in leprosy and blood diseases. Fruits are diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, alterative, astringent to the bowels; useful in anaemia, leprosy, ulcer, consumption, strangury and vaginal discharges. Bark is bitter tonic and galactagogue. Powder of the inner portion of bark is used in scabies by the Marma tribe. Thanchangya use the bark extract with sugar for the treatment of jaundice. Roots are laxative, anthelmintic and stomachic; useful in piles, abdominal pains, burning sensations and fevers. Roots are used for the treatment of septic wounds (Yusuf et al. 2009).

EtOH(50%) extract of stem and stem bark is antiglycaemic and antiviral (Asolkar et al., 1992).


Chemical constituents:
Leaves contain alkaloids and luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, hentriacontanol, β-sitosterol, quercetogenin and other flavonoids. Roots contain a viscid oil, resin, alkaloids and also gmelinol, hentriacontanol, ceryl alcohol, octacosanol, β-sitosterol and a sesquiterpene; cadinane type furanosesquiterpene, gmelofuran. An apiose-containing coumarin, apiossylskimmin was isolated from the roots. Heartwood contains ceryl alcohol, β-sitosterol, n-octacosanol, gmelinol and a number of other lignans including arborone, oxodihydrogmelinol, arboreal, bromo-isoarboreol; gmelanone, dihydroxysesamin (gummadiol) etc. and 4-epigummodiol glucoside. Fruits are reported to contain butyric and tartaric acids (Ghani, 2003). A new lignan, arboreol has been isolated from the plant (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar, Dhaka, Mymensingh and also planted all over the country.

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