GARCINIA COWA Roxb.

Family: Clusiaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Kau, Cowa, Kaglichu; Kao-gola (Chittagong)

Tribal name: Kao-gula (Chakma, Tanchangya), Tah Gala (Marma)

English name: Cow Tree

Description of the plant:
A medium-sized evergreen tree with horizontal branches and oval crown.  Leaves 7.6-12.6 cm long, broadly to elliptically lanceolate, acuminate. Flower rather small, yellow; the male ones smaller in dense terminal clusters; the females 13 mm diam., or somewhat larger, solitary or by 3-5 at the end of the branchlets. Berry the size of a lime, slightly 6-8 lobed, dul red, somewhat depressed at the apex.

Using information:
Bark is astringent; used in spasm. Fruits are given in headache. Sun-dried slices of the fruits are used in dysentery. Gum resin is drastic cathartic, may produce nausea and vomiting (Yusuf et al. 2009).

Ethanolic extract of the leaf possesses antibacterial properties (Anwar et al., 2007).

Chemical constituents:
Fruit pericarp is composed of a fat and the seeds yield a wax-like fat consisting of glycerides of stearic, oleic, palmitic, linoleic and myristic acids. Bark contains a gum resin (Ghani, 2003). A new compound 1,3,6-Trihydroxy-7-methoxy-8-(3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl)-xanthone has been isolated from stems (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).


GARCINIA COWA
GARCINIA COWA Roxb.


Distribution:
Forests of Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar and Sylhet.


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