Synonyms: Flacourtia cataphracta Roxb. ex Willd., Stigmarota jangomas Lour.

Family: Flacourtiaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Paniala, Paniamala; Lukluki, Tokroi (Sylhet); Painnagola (Chittagong), Paniamra (Satkhira)..

Tribal name: Khoro gola (Rakhaing), Thingrong (Khumi), Riamcha (Bawm), Tamagry, Ne-Re-Shi (Marma), Painnya gula(Chakma), Painna Mola (Tripura).

English name: Many spiked Flacortia.

Description of the plant:
A small deciduous tree often armed with stout, compound thorns on the main trunk and branches with simple spines. Leaves 5-10 cm long, oblong or ovate, acuminate, crenate-serrate, glabrous. Flowers small, in glabrous few-flowered racemes, 7.5-25 mm long. Fruits 18-23 mm long, obovoid, brownish purple when ripe.

Using information:
Fruits are stomachic and digestive; allay thirst, useful in biliousness and fevers and relieves nausea. Leaves are diaphoretic, astringent and stomachic; good in diarrhoea, piles, weakness of limbs, bleeding gums, toothache and stomatitis; checks purging. Leaves and young shoots are prescribed in diarrhoea. Decoction of the bark is useful in biliousness, bleeding gums and toothache (Yusuf et al. 2009).

Chemical constituents:
Bark principally contains tannins. Leaves and young shoots are also rich in tannins. Fruits contain soluble carbohydrates, fats (containing palmitic, hexadecadienolic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids), minerals, ascorbic and tartaric acids, proteins, amino acids and phenolic compounds (Ghani, 2003).

Forests of Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox,s Bazar and Sylhet. Also found in village shrubberies.

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