Synonyms: Ficus indica L.

Family: Moraceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Bot, Krishna Bot.

Tribal name: Ramthet, Gonok (Garo); Bot Gaith (Tanchangya).

English name: Banyan Tree.

Description of the plant:
A large spreading, evergreen or semi-deciduous tree of low stature (trunk), sending down many aerial roots from the branches. All parts contain white latex. Leaves coriaceous, 10-20 cm long, ovate or elliptic, entire. Receptacles about 2 cm diam., sessile, in pairs, axillary, globose, puberulous, red when ripe.

Using information:
Latex of the plant is aphrodisiac, tonic, vulnerary and maturant; used in toothache, dysentery, diarrhoea, piles and diabetes; applied externally to cracked or inflamed soles, to alleviate rheumatic pains and lumbago. It lessens inflammations. An infusion of the bark is tonic; used for the treatment of diabetes. The leaves are vulnerary; useful in biliousness; warm leaves are applied to abscesses. An infusion of the young buds is useful in diarrhoea and dysentery. The aerial root is styptic and aphrodisiac. Tips of the hanging roots are given for obstinate vomiting. In Rema-kalenga the aerial roots are given for the treatment of impotency. Seeds are cooling and tonic (Yusuf et al. 2009).

Aquous extract of the bark and leaves is depressant on uterine and cardiac muscle and also cholinergic-blocking of smooth and skeletal muscle. Bark extract is antidiabetic in rabbit; decoction showed strong antifertility activity in man and women (Asolkar et al., 1992).


Chemical constituents:
Bark and young buds contain milky latex, tannins and wax. Bark also contains a hypoglycaemic glucoside, half as potent as tolbutamide, bengalenoside, methyl ether of leucoanthocyanidin, three leucoanthocyanins, delphinidin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (I), pelargonidin-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (II) and leucocyanidin-3-O-β-D-galactosylcellobioside (III) phytosterolin (hypoglycemic in rabbits), β-sitosterol glycoside, mesoinositol and ketones. Leaves contain friedelin, β-sitosterol, quercetin-3-galactoside and rutin. The heartwood contains giglic acid ester of γ-taraxasterol. Fruits contain oil, albuminoids, cyanidin rhamnoglycoside and carbohydrates. The plant also contains ficusin and bergaptin (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Throghout Bangladesh.

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