ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. var. orientalis (L.) Merr.

Erythrina indica Lamk.
Family: Fabaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Palitamadar, Paniamadar, Raktamadar, Mandar, Madar.
Tribal name: Bol-mandal, Mandal (Garo); Thai Po (Marma).
English name: Indian Coral Tree.

Description of the plant:
A small to medium-sized armed, deciduous tree. Leaves 3-foliolate, 15-30 cm long; leaflets 10-15 cm long, broadly rhomboid-ovate, acute or acuminate. Flowers bright red, appearing before the leaves, in dense racemes, 10-20 cm long. Pods 12.5-30 cm long, subcylindric, distinctly torulose.

Using information:
Leaves are stomachic, anthelmintic, laxative, diuretic, gatactagogue and emmenagogue; applied externally for dispersing venereal buboes, relieve pain of the joints and inflammations; juice is poured in to the ear to relief earache and is used as an anodyne in toothache. The bark is astringent, febrifuge anti-bilious and anthelmintic; useful in dysentery and as a collyrium in ophthalmia. The roots are emmenagogue (Yusuf et al. 2009).


ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA
ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA L. var. orientalis (L.) Merr.


Total alkaloid fraction from bark showed neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant and anticonvulsant effects (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Chemical constituents:
Leaves and bark contain a large number of isoquinoline alkaloids including erysotrine (major), erysodine, erysovine, erysonine, erysopitine, erysodienone, ethyraline hydrochloride and hypaphorine, erythrinine and de-N-methyl oreintaline. Bark also contains 8 spiroamine alkaloids and 3 carboxylated indole-3-alkamines, stachydrine, wax alcohols and acids, alkyl ferulates and phenolates, sterols and flavones, osajin, alpunum isoflavone, oxyresveratrol, its dihydro derivative and erytthrinins A, B & C. Alkaloids are also present in the flowers and seeds.

The isoquinoline alkaloids, isococcolinine and erythritol occur in the flowers, while hypaphorine (major), erysopine, erysotrine, erythraline, erysovine, choline and proteinase inhibitors occur in the seeds. Seeds also contain a fixed oil, faty acids and lectins (Ghani, 2003). Barks also contains docosyl alcohol, β-sitosterol, γ-sitosterol, δ-sitosterol (Rastogi & Mehrotra 1990).

Distribution:
Forests of Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar and Sylhet, also planted  throughout the country.