Entada phaseoloides(L.) Merr., Entada scandens Benth.
Family: Mimosaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Gilagach, Gilla.
Tribal name: Gilanoi (Marma).
English name: Giant’s Rattle, Lady Nut, Mackay Bean.

Description of the plant:
A large woody climber, with much twisted stem. Leaves bipinnate, pinnae 2-3 pairs, leaflets 3.8-7.5 cm, oblong or obovate-oblong, rigidly coriaceous. Flowers in panicled or simple spikes, 15-25 cm long, axillary or from the nodes of old leafless branches. Flowers small, corolla 2.5-3 mm long, yellow. Pods 30-90 cm long, slightly curved, woody, indented between the seeds.

Using information:
Seeds are emetic, febrifuge, alexiteric, narcotic, antiperiodic and anthelmintic; used in pains of the loins and joints, in debility and in glandular swellings; also as a remedy in cerebral hemorrhage. Roasted seeds are purgative. The plant is used as a fish poison. Decoction of plant is used as a febrifuge, in infantile tympanites and in bowel complaints. Decoction of the bark is given internally as an astringent. Pounded leaves are applied to wounds as a vulnerary. In Khagrachari seeds are used by the Marma tribe for joint pain, as well as contraceptive. Roots are used for diarrhoea (Yusuf et al. 2009).


Chemical constituents:
Bark and seeds contain significant amounts of saponins including an anti-tumour saponin, entanin, which on hydrolysis yields entagenic acid. Seeds also contain a fixed oil, proteins, albumins and globulins, essential amino acids, fatty acids such as oleic and linoleic acids; phaseoloidin, tyrosine glucoside and dopamine glucoside and many minerals. A new triterpenoid, entagenic acid and a crystalline sapogenin have also been isolated from the seeds.

Myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, behenic, and linolenic acids have been obtained from seed oil hydrolysate. Seed oil also contains triglycerides comprised of monounsaturated diolein and dilinolein, saturated oleolinolein, dioleolinolein, trioleein, oleodilinolein and trilinolein. Pericarp contains β-sitosterol, α-amyrin, quercetin, cyanidin chloride and gallic acid. Kernel contains oleanolic and echinocytic acids and methyl mercaptan (Ghani, 2003, Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Forests of Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet.