Diospyros cordifolia Roxb.
Family: Ebenaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Bangab, Tomal, Mohesh kanda.
English name: Mottled Ebony.

Description of the plant:
A medium tree, rarely spinescent. Leaves alternate, 3.8-14 cm long, ovate-oblong or elliptic, acute or subacuminate, base usually rounded, softly pubescent. Male flowers 1 cm long, in 3-several-flowered cymes; female flowers 1.3 cm long, solitary, noding. Fruit globose, up to 2.5 cm across, reddis-brown when ripe.

Using information:
Fruits are poisonous; applied to boils appear on hands with much pain. Crushed leaves are used as fish poison. Besides various parts of the plant is used in fever, dysuria, gravel, neuralgia, pleurisy, pneumonia, menorrhagia and flooding, puerperal fever, diarrhoea and poisonous spider-bite (Yusuf et al. 2009).

Bark extract is significant anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic; alcoholic extract inhibits Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice (Asolkar et al.,1992).


Chemical constituents:
Leaves contain betulin, diospyrin, epiuvaol and a new triterpene characterized as urs-12-en-3α, 28-diol, along with lupeol, sitosterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and betulic acid. Bark and wood contains 7-methyljuglone, mamegakinone, bitramentacenone, isodiospyrin, diospyrin, 8′-hyroxydiospyrin, 3,5′-O-cyclodiospyrin, 3′-chloro-2′-hydroxydiospyrin (artifact), chromenone ester and chromenone acid, allobetulin and oxyallobetulin. Tetrahydrodiospyrin also have been isolated from bark.

Fruit pulp contains fatty esters of α-amyrin, ursolic, and oleanolic acids; also contains β-sitosterol, lupeol and betulinic acid. Seeds contain betulinic acid and 1.5% oil; saponifiable fraction of the oil contains palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid and unsaponified fraction contains lupeol, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Planted in the Hindu temples and shrines throughout the country.