DERRIS INDICA (Lamk.) Bennet.

Pongamia pinnata(L.) Pierre.,  P. glabra Vent.
Family: Fabaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Dahur Karanja; Karanija, Dahur, Kanji, Pitagola, Koja; Karach (Sylhet); Karanja (Sunderban); Keron, Kerong (Chittagong).
English name: Indian Beech, Poonga oil plant.

Description of the plant:
A small-sized evergreen or semi-deciduous tree with spreading crown. Leaves imparipinnate, 15-25 cm long; leaflets ovate or elliptic, 5-10 cm long, terminal one largest. Flowers purplish or pinkish white in 7-15 cm long peduncled axillary racemes. Fruit a flattened, woody pod, 4-5 cm long, oblique, elliptically oblong with a beak.

Using information:
A poultice of the leaves is applied to ulcers infested with worms. A decoction of the leaves is used for medicated baths and fomentation in cases of rheumatic pains; paste is useful in whitlow. Seeds possess hypotensive properties and produces uterine contractions. Powdered seed is valued as a febrifuge and tonic; used in bronchitis and whooping cough; in the forms of paste used for leprous sores, skin diseases and painful rheumatic joints, also as fish poison.

Seed oil is anthelmintic; very useful in rheumatism, scabies, herpes, leucoderma and other cutaneous diseases. The fresh bark is used internally in bleeding piles. Decoction of bark is given in malaria an intermittent fever. Root juice is used in fistulous sores and cleaning foul ulcers (Yusuf et al. 2009).


DERRIS INDICA
DERRIS INDICA (Lamk.) Bennet.


Ethanolic extract of the leaf possesses moderate antibacterial and antifungal properties (Dutta, 2006).

Chemical constituents:
Leaves contain furanoflavone-3′-methoxypongapin in addition to karanjin, kanjone and its two isomers 7-methoxyfurano-(4′′, 5′′,6,5)- flavone and 8-methoxyfurano-(4′′,5′′-6,7)-flavone. Bark contains a hydroxychalcone, pongapinone A, which is useful for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Stem bark also contain chromenoflavone, pongachromene, glabra-I, glabra-II, kuranjin, pongapin, kanugin and de-methoxykanugin. Root bark contains a large number of the flavonoid compounds, ponganones, four furoflavones, keranjin, pongapin, pinnatin and gamatin and tetra-methoxyfisetin. Flowers contain new OH-furanoflavone, pongaglabol, aurantiamide acetate, 4 known furano flavones, β-sitosterol and kaempferol.

Seeds contain a bitter fatty oil, crystalline substances, β-diketone, karanjin, pongamol, glabrin, pongapin, lanceolatin-B, kanjone, isopongaflavone and pongapine and also traces of essential oil. Seed oil contains di-methylchromenoflavanone, isolonchocarpin and demethoxy kanugin; oil from immature seed yields new OH-furanoflavone and pongol. Heartwood contains pongachalcone, glabrachromen, de-methoxykanugin, kanugin, pongaglabrone, β-sitosterol and pongachromene (Asolkar et al., 1992; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990 & 93; Ghani, 2003).

Distribution:
Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar, Sylhet, Sundarbans, usually growing by the side of rivers, canals, streams and ditches.