CURCUMA LONGA L.

Synonyms: C. domestica Vahl.

Family: Zingiberaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Halud, Haldi.

Tribal Name: Chith Nu, Ranjan (Marma); Sudai (Tipra).

English Name: Turmeric.

Description of the Plant

A tall rhizomatous herb, with orange yellow rhizomes, strongly aromatic. Leaves very large, tufted, up to 1.2 m or more long; petiole long, blade oblong-lanceolate. Flowers in dense spike, 10-15 cm long, in the centre of the tuft of leaves; flowering bracts pale green; coma bracts greenish white or tinged with pink.

Using Information

The rhizome is laxative, carminative, diuretic, stimulant, vulnerary, tonic, alexiteric and emollient. Externally rhizome is used in the treatment of scabies, itches, boils, abscess, eczema, leucoderma, eye diseases, pains, bruises and sprains; internally for cough, cold, fever, inflammations, ozoena, biliousness, dyspepsia, affections of the liver and jaundice; especially for mothers after delivery and in disorders of blood. It is also beneficial in asthma, gonorrhoea and urinary diseases.

In conjunctivitis, eyes are cleaned several times a day with a piece of cloth soaked in rhizome extract. Paste made of rhizome powder, molasses and mustard oil when chewed gives relief from respiratory problem. Paste of the rhizome along with Azadirachta indica leaf taken every morning in empty stomach is good for diabetes. Warm, fresh rhizome paste is applied on cuts and wounds for healing.

Rhizome paste or powder mixed with hot rice, mustard oil and table salt is taken for 3-4 days to cure dysentery. Rhizome paste mixed with lime is applied as a poultice to get relief from pain of the sprain. Fresh rhizome juice along with salt is prescribed for intestinal worms. Rhizome oil acts as antacid, carminative, stomachic and tonic.

Flower paste is used in ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases and also in the gonorrhoea. Flower paste is used for the treatment of stomachache in Chittagong Hill Tracts.

CURCUMA LONGA L.
CURCUMA LONGA L.

EtOH(50%) extract of rhizome is spasmolytic, antiprotozoal and CNS depressant. Rhizome extract is effective as insect repellent against houseflies. It has effet on growth of some intestinal and pathogenic bacteria; possesses antifungal properties and inhibitory effect on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Chemical Constituents

Rhizome contains curcumin (0.3-5.4%), an essential oil composed mainly of turmerone, atlantone, zingiberone and other sesquiterpenes and sugars. It also contains hydorxycinnamic, hydroxybenzoic acids, oleoresin, campesterol, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, cholesterol and fatty acids. The oil contains phellandrene, cineol, borneol, zingiberene and sesquiterpenes.

More than 20 components have been identified in the leaf oil, of which a-phellandrene, 1,8-cineole, p-cymene and ß -pinene are the major ones. The rhizome oil also contains most of these constituents and also car-3-ene, a-terpinene, ?-terpinene and terpinolene (Ghani, 2003; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

Distribution

Cultivated all over Bangladesh.


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