Family: Euphorbiaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Chuka, Baragachi, Putri; Adagach (Chittagong); Dudhiya (Dinajpur).

Tribal Name: Bol-mangbol chham (Garo).

Description of the Plant

A small to middle-sized, deciduous tree. Leaves 12.5-25 cm long, crowded towards the ends of the branchlets, oblong-lanceolate, subacute. Flowers pale yellowish green, solitary or fasicled in the axils of minute bracts on long, erect, often fascicled racemes. Capsules subglobose, little depressed, slightly 3-lobed, less than 1.3 cm across.

Using Information

Barks and roots are alterative, purgative and cholagogue; used in reducing chronic enlargement of the liver and in remittent fever. It is externally applied to sprains, bruises and rheumatic swelling and to the hepatic region in chronic hepatitis.

Decoction of the root bark with black pepper is given in diarrhoea and dysentery. The seeds and fruits are purgative. Various parts of the plants are used in spleen troubles, madness, epilepsy, convulsion, scabies, venereal sores, syphilis, ulcers, hydrocele, cholera, neuralgia and pneumonia.

Croblongifolin present in the stem bark showed significant toxicity against various human cells. Cytotoxic effect was also shown by labdane diterpenoids. Neocrotocembranal shows inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by thrombin (Aslam et al., 2006).


Chemical Constituents

Stem bark contains ß-sitosterol; a diterpene alcohol, oblongifoliol, deoxyoblongifoliol and oblongifolic acid. Flavonoids have been isolated from root bark, stem bark, and wood. Two new cembranoids- crotocembraneic acid and neocrotocembraneic acid and a new cembranoid diterpene, neocrotocembranal have been reported from stem bark.

Stem bark also contains a clerodane, crovatin, a furoclerodane, croblongifolin, a labdane nidorellol (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993; Ghani, 2003; Aslam et al., 2006).


Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Sylhet; in scrubby and deciduous forests. Also found in village shrubberies of Mymensingh and Dinajpur.

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