Synonyms: C. sparsiflorus Morong.

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Tribal Name: Pai Hiya (Marma).

Description of the Plant

A much-branched, woody herb, 20-50 cm tall, branches stellate-hairy to glabrous. Leaves alternate or subopposite, shortly petiolate; lamina 1.2-3.2 cm long, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, apex acute, cuneate at base. Inflorescence terminal, 5-7 cm long, flowers laxly distributed.

Male flowers small, white occupies the upper portion of the inflorescence. Female flowers few at the base of the inflorescence. Capsule 0.45 x 0.4 cm, oblong-ellipsoid, shallowly 3-lobed.

Actions and uses: Juice of 3-4 leaves is given for 3-4 days to cure cough. Seed paste is applied locally on eczema and ringworm to cure. Latex is used to heal cuts and wounds.

EtOH(50%) extract of plant is hypotensive and spasmolytic (Asolkar et al., 1992). The leaf extract shows antiviral activity against tomato spotted with virus coepia. The plant extract is also effective against green gram leaf curl disease (Aslam et al., 2006).

Chemical Constituents

Plant and leaves contain alkaloids sparsiflorine, crotoflorine, crotsparine, crotsparinine, proaporphine, isoquinoline dienone, N-methylcrotsparine and N-methylcrotsparinine. Leaves and stem contains ß-sitosterol and taraxerol, vomifoliol, ursolic acid and tetrahydroglazievine.


Leaves also contain rutin. Seeds contain phorbol diesters, phorbol trimesters, cocarcinogen; alkaloid, 3-OMe-4, 6-di-OH-morphinandien-7-one and norsinoacutine (Asolkar et al., 1992; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

The roots in addition to ß-sitosterol contain phenolic quinonoid alkaloid norsinoacutine and 3-methoxy-4,6-dihydroxy morphinan-dien-7-one. An unusual finding of this species is the hyper accumulation of copper in it (Aslam et al., 2006).


Throughout the country along waysides and fallow lands.

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