Synonyms: C. nurvala Buch.-Ham., C. religiosa auct non Forst. f.

Family: Capparidaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Barun, Bannay, Tikoshak, Bonna, Gotaburna; Ladung, Pitagola (Chittagong).

Tribal Name: Kaingtha (Mogh); Jong-sia (Garo); La Pova (Marma).

English Name: Three leaved Caper.

Description of the Plant

A small much branched deciduous tree. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets 5-15 cm long, ovate, lanceolate or obovate, acute. Flowers many, in dense terminal corymbs; petals nearly 2.5 cm long, greenish white; stamens longer than the petals. Fruit a globose or ovoid, woody berry.

Using Information

Leaves are stomachic, tonic, rubefacient and febrifuge; used in rheumatism. Flowers are astringent and cholagogue. A couple of buds pounded with salt are taken before meals to promote the appetite. The fruits are laxative. Roots and bark are laxative, lithontriptic, anthelmintic, expectorant; promote appetite and increases biliary secretion.

Bark is demulcent, stomachic and laxative; useful in fever, vomiting and symptoms of gastric irritation; especially useful in cases of kidney and bladder stones. Juice of the bark is given to women as a contraceptive after childbirth.

Bark is bitter and poisonous. Water soluble fraction of alcoholic extract is spasmolytic on animal and human uteri and cholinergic on smooth muscles of animals. Petrolium ether extract is anti-inflammatory against different types of inflammation.

Root extract is antibacterial against Gram +ve and Gram –ve bacteria. Alcoholic extract of stem is antibacterial against E. coli. Plant inhibited phosphatic stone formation in rats (Asolkar et al., 1992).


Chemical Constituents

Stem bark of the plant contains saponins, flavonoids, sterols and glucosilinates and ceryl alcohol, friedelin, cadabicine, diacetate, lupeol, betulinic acid and diosgenin. Fruits contain glycocaparin, ß-sitosterol, triacontane, triacontanol, cetyl and ceryl alcohols. Leaves contain l-stachydrine. Root bark contains rutin, quercetin, lupeol, varunol and ß-sitosterol.

It also contains lauric, stearic, undecylic, oleic and linolenic acids and a new triterpene alcohol – lupa-21, 20(29)dien-3ß-ol. Presence of alkaloids have been reported in bark and stem. These alkaloids showed antimicrobial activities. Fruit contains cetyl alcohol, ceryl alcohol, triacontane, triacontanol, ß-sitosterol and glucocapparin (Ghani, 2003).


Throughout Bangladesh on river bank, canal banks and low-laying areas.

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