Synonyms: C. maxima (Burm.) Merrill., C. decumana L., C. aurantium Var. grandis L.

Family: Rutaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Jambura, Batabilebu, Mahanimbu, Chakotra.

Tribal Name: Dopaashe (Marma).

English Name: Shaddock, Pummelo, Forbidden Fruit.

Description of the Plant

A small to medium-sized spinous tree. Leaflets large, 15-23 cm long, ovate-oblong, petioles broadly winged. Flowers white. Fruit large, pale yellow, globose or pyriform; rind thick; pulp varying in colour from crimson to pale pink or yellow.

Using Information

The fruit is considered nutritive, cardiotonic and refrigerant; useful in influenza, cough, catarrh and asthma. The rind is anthelmintic; useful in vomiting, griping of abdomen and diarrhoea. The leaves are useful in epilepsy, chorea and convulsive cough.

Alcoholic extract of the leaves possess moderate antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. magaterium, Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei, Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae (Khan, 2000). Essential oil possesses antifungal properties. Cirantin (identical with hesperidin) present in the peel possesses antifertility activity (Ghani, 2003).


Chemical Constituents

Fruit juice is rich in ascorbic and citric acids. Fruit peel contains an essential oil rich in d-limonene (about 90%), a-pinine, linalool, geraniol, flavonoids, coumarins, triterpenes, carotene, pectin, nobilitin and hesperidin. The unripe fruit contains cirantin, which reputedly is a contraceptive. Fungistatic flavones tangeretin and nobiletin are present in the leaves. They also contain essential oil. The oil contains a 7-hydroxycoumarin geranyl ether, auraptene.

Flowers contain flavonoid glycosides, neo-hesperidin and naringin. Fruit juice and seeds contain limonoid glycosides like limonnin, nomilin and obacunone (Ghani, 2003). Peel contains nirangin and poncirin (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990).


Grown all over Bangladesh.

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