CISSAMPELOS PAREIRA L. Var. hirsuta (Buch. ex Dc.) Forman

Synonyms: C. hirsuta Buch.-Ham.ex DC.

Family: Menispermaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Akanadi, Nemuka, Nimuka.

English Name: False Pareira brava, Velvet-leaf.

Description of the Plant

A climber. Leaves peltate, 3.8-10 cm diam., orbicular or reniform, cordate or truncate at the base, mucronate, with long petiole. Flowers minute, yellowish. Male flowers pedicelled in nearly axillary cymes. Female flowers in elongate, solitary or twin axillary racemes. Drupe subglobose, compressed, hairy, red.

Using Information

The plant is used in pain, fever, dysentery, skin eruptions, heart troubles, burning, itching, vomiting and asthma; removes intestinal worms, cures enlarged spleen and ulcers, useful in piles and urine complaints. Leaf extract is applied externally to itch, sores and sinuses. Roots are a valuable stomachic, diuretic, emmenagogue, antipyretic, tonic, expectorant and alexiteric; used in chronic inflammation of the urinary passage, leucorrhoea and gonorrhoea; decoction is given for stomach pain, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, dropsy, cough, prolapsus uteri and as a wash for children who have pimples over their body. It is also used in urinary gravel, dysuria and calcular nephritis.

Root lowers blood pressure; extract is hypoglycaemic in animals. The plant alkaloids are inhibitory against human carcinoma cells of the nasopharynx in cell culture. Alkaloid dl-curine dimethiodide (Daifisong) from plant found effective as muscle relaxant in clinical use (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Chemical Constituents

Root bark contains in its aqueous extract 11 quaternary alkaloids, including menismine, cissamine, pareirine, d-isochondrodendrine, l-bebeerine, hayatine, and hayatinine. Roots contain l- curine, cissamine chloride, alkaloids, dicentrine, its dihydro derivatives, cycleanine, insularine and isochondodendrine. Essential oil (0.2%) obtained from root contains thymol. Leaves yield cycleanine, l-bebeerine, hayatidine, hayatinine, hayatine and d-quercitol. Plant also contains alkaloid cissampareine and (+) - 4?- methoxy-curine. (Asolkar, et al., 1992).

Distribution

Chittagong, Dhaka, Moulvi Bazar, Sylhet, Pabna, Tangail, inforests.


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