Capsicum minimum Roxb. Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum
Capsicum annuum L. var. frutescens (L.) Kuntze
Family: Solanaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Lanka-marich, Marich, Jhal.
Tribal Name: Sangring-pui (Khumi).
English Name: Chillies, Bird Chilli, Goat Pepper.

Description of the Plant:
Shrubley perennial plants, 0.75-1.8 m high. Leaves broadly ovate. Flowers axillary white or greenish white, usually 2 or more together. Calyx embracing the base of the fruit. Fruit ovoid to oblong, obtuse or acuminate, red when ripe.

Using Information:
Fruits are stomachic and stimulant; used as an adjunct to tonic and bitter medicines. Capsicum has a powerful action on the mucous membrane and is beneficial in sore throat; used as a rubefacient liniment. Capsicum preparations used as counter irritant in lumbago, neuralgia and rheumatism. Internally it is tonic and carminative; useful in atonic dyspepsia. Powder of the dried fruit is made into paste with water and fried with hot rice is given in blood dysentery. Fruit is used for chest trouble and cough. Leaves are used in headache, night blindness, pain, adenitis, sores, dysuria and bronchitis.

Crude juice of fruit is antimicrobial. EtOH(50%) extract of aerial parts is diuretic (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Capsicum Frutescens

Chemical Constituents:
Fruits contain an oleoresin which contains the pungent principles, capsaicin and dihydorcapsaicin as the major constituents. They also contain homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, nonanoic acid, vanillylamide, vitamin C and minerals. Nonivamide has also been isolated from the fruit oleoresin. Red fruits contain carotenoids and flavonoids. Leaves and seeds contain glycosides, sterols and small amounts of capsaicinoids. The plant also contains sesquiterpene, capsidiol, phytoalexin and its derivatives. Seeds contain saponin, capsiciden and the alkaloids, solanine and solanidine, vanillylamine, phenylalanine, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin have been identified in the fruits (Ghani, 2003).

Widely cultivated throughout Bangladesh.