CANNABIS SATIVA L.

Cannabis indica Lamk.
Family: Cannabidaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Ganja, Bhang, Charas, Siddhi.
English Name:Hemp, True Hemp, Soft Hemp.

Description of the Plant:
A tall, erect bad smelling annual herb, usually 1-1.5 m high. Leaves, 7.5-20 cm diam., upper 1-3 and lower 5-11 partite, serrate, palmatinerved. Flowers small, axillary, dioecious; males fasicled in short pendulous panicles; females crowded under leafy convolute bracts.

Using Information:
All parts of the plant are narcotic, stomachic, antispasmodic, analgesic, stimulant, aphrodisiac and sedative. Leaves and resins are mainly used as Bhang. Leaves make a good snuff for deterging the brain; juice removes dandruff and vermin; allays earache; checks the discharge in diarrhoea and gonorrhoea. The resin called charas is used to produce sleep, prevents and cures headache, neuralgia, migraine; valuable in acute mania, whooping cough, asthma and in reliving pain in dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia and pain of phthisis.  Poultice of leaves relieves inflammations, neuralgia, haemorrhoids, as an anodyne or sedative. The seeds possess tonic, alterative, emmenagogue and laxative properties. Oil of seeds is used in rheumatism.


CANNABIS SATIVA
CANNABIS SATIVA L.


EtOH(50%) extract of plant is spasmolytic, hypotensive and CNS depressant (Asolkar et al.,1992).

Chemical Constituents:
Cannabis yields 421 chemicals of various classes broadly divided as i) cannabinoids, ii) cannabispirans and iii) alkaloids. Principal constituent of the flowering tops of the pistillate plants, which are medicinally used and also abused, is a resin which contains more than 60 cannabinoids which are responsible for the narcotic and psychotominetic properties of Cannabis. The active compounds of Cannabis include cannnabinol, pseudocannabinol, tetrahydrocannabinol, cannadidiol, cannabigerol, cannabol, cannabinin, cannin, piperidine and cannabichromene.

he plant also contains volatile oil, alkaloids, choline trigonelline, spernidine and cannabisativine and flavonoid glycosides of vitexin and orientin. Roots contain steroids, triterpenes, amides, ß-sitosterol, friedelin, epifriedelinol, carvone, dihydrocarvone and a basic substance. The steam distilled volatile oil of the flowering tops contains 68 components, of which monoterpens and sesquiterpens are the major ones. Seeds contain base 1-(+)- isoleucine betaine (Ghani, 2003).

Distribution:
Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Dhaka, Dinajpur, Faridpur, Jessore, Kushtia, Rajshahi, Rangpur.