CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L.

Family: Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Punnag, Sultana champa, Katchampa, Panial; Punyal, Puinnal, (Noakhali); Golab (Barisal, Sunderbans).

Tribal Name: Thyklii-wing (Khumi)

English Name: Alexandrian Laurel, Dilo oil tree.

Description of the Plant:
A medium-sized, evergreen, tree, with crooked trunk. Leaves 10-18 cm long, broadly elliptic, rounded at apex with very close lateral nerves. Flowers pure white, in lax, few-flowered racemes, 10-15 cm long. Fruit globose, 2.5-3.8 cm across.

Using Information:
Bark is astringent; pounded bark is used topically in orchitis; useful in internal haemorrhages, and its juice is used as purgative. Decoction of the bark is employed as a lotion for indolent ulcers. The gum resin is considered emetic, purgative, vulnerary, resolvent and anodyne; applied to ulcers and wounds. Leaves are applied to sore eyes. Seed oil is highly esteemed external application in rheumatism; it is a reputed antipsoric; used in gonorrhoea, gleet and scabies. Leaf contains hydrocyanic acid, which is poisonous to fish.


Callophyllum Inophyllum
CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM L.


EtOH(50%) extract of the aerial parts is spasmolytic and CNS depressant (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Chemical Constituents:
Leaves contain amentoflavone, friedelin, the triterpenes, canophyllal, canophyllol and canophyllic acid and derivatives of (+) - inophyllolide, called isophyllum A-E and P. Heartwood contains xanthones such as calophyllin, measuaxanthone and jacareubin; calanolide and other coumarin derivatives, calophyllolide, isophyllum A-E and P, calophyllic acid and isocalophyllic acid. Barks yield resin, which contains brasiliensic and isophylloidic acids. Seeds contain coumarins, alkylcoumarin and calophynic acid.

The root bark also contains a number of xanthones. The seed coat hard testa contains (±)-leucocyanidin. Calophyllolide, a complex coumarin have been isolated from the nuts which is antiarrhythmic (as effective as quinidine), bradicardiac, coronary dilator, hypertensive and anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic (Ghani, 2003).

Distribution:
Coastal forests of the country, especially Noakhali, Bhola, Sandwip and Patuakhali.