ARACHIS HYPOGEA L.

Family: Fabaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Cheenabadam.

English Name: Groundnut, Peanut, Monkeynut.

Description of the Plant:

An annual spreading, branched herb, stem 30-80 cm long. Leaves 8-12 cm long, imparipinnate, leaflets oblong to obovate, 2-5 cm long. Flowers axillary, few, fascicled, yellow, about 8 mm long. Pods 1-5 cm long, oblong, constricted between seeds, ripening underground.

Using Information:

Unripe fruit is lactagogue. Seed and seed oils are astringent to the bowels. The oil is aperient and emollient; used as a substitute for olive oil.

The oil predominates in mono unsaturated fats, beneficial for cardiac patients, also preventive of heart attacks. EtOH extract of defatted peanuts shortened bleeding time; had excitatory effects on smooth muscles of experimental animals, but inhibitory effect on isolated frog heart (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Chemical Constituents:

The chief constituent of the seeds is a nondrying edible fixed oil, which predominates in mono unsaturated fats; yields fatty acids, glycerides, carotenoids, tocopherols, triterpenoids, sterols, etc. Cotyledons contain arachins and protease inhibitors. Red skin of groundnut kernels contains a phenolic glycoside, arachidoside. Kernels contain proteins, carbohydrates and thiamine. Nut meal contains arachin, con-arachin, fat, protein, vitamins and lecithin. The alkaloid arachine isolated from its presscake pellets have shown to be impure choline. Aflatoxin has detected in the nuts (Ghani, 2003).

ARACHIS HYPOGEA L.
ARACHIS HYPOGEA L.

Distribution:

Cultivated in Dhaka, Mymensingh, Comilla, Noakhali and other districts.