ANTHOCEPHALUS CHINENSIS (Lamk.) Rich. ex Walp.

Family: Rubiaceae

Synonyms: A. cadamba Miq, A. indicus A. Rich.

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Kadam, Bulkadam.

Tribal Name: Mohu (Magh); Mi-bol (Garo); Rang Khi (Marma).

English Name: Wild Cinchona.

Description of the Plant:

A large deciduous tree with horizontal branches, more or less whorled. Leaves 12.5-22.5 cm lomg, elliptic-oblong. Flowers small, yellow, in globose terminal head, 2.5-5 cm across with stout peduncles. Fruit a globose pseudocarp, 5-6 cm diam, yellow when ripe.

Using Information:

The bark is febrifuge, tonic, antidiarrhoeal and astringent to the bowels. A decoction of the leaves is used as a gargle in case of aphthae and stomatitis. Fruit is cooling and analgesic.

EtOH(50%) extract of the stem bark is anthelmintic and hypoglycaemic (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Chemical Constituents:

Leaves contain indole alkaloids- cadambine and 3 a- dihydrocadambine, 3ß-dihydrocadambine, cadamine, a glycosidal alkaloid, isodihydrocadambine, 3ß-isodihydrocadambine, hentriacontanol and ß-sitosterol. Stem bark contains an astringent principle similar to cinchotannic acid, the above alkaloids, quinovic, and cadambagenic acids, saponins, other steroids, ß-sterols, fats and reducing sugars. Five known irridoids, six alkaloids, one new secoiridoid, 3'-O-caffeoylsweroside and two new phenolic apioglucosides, kelampayoside A and kelampayoside B, have also been isolated from the bark. Flowers contain an essential oil. Root and bark yield quinovic acid (Ghani, 2003; Asolkar et al., 1992).

ANTHOCEPHALUS CHINENSIS (Lamk.) Rich. ex Walp.
ANTHOCEPHALUS CHINENSIS (Lamk.) Rich. ex Walp.

Distribution:

In almost all districts.