ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Ness.

Family: Acanthacea

Synonyms: Justicia paniculata Burm.f.

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Kalomegh, Kalamegh.

Tribal Name: Kalpanas (Garo).

English Name: The Creat.

Description of the Plant:

A very bitter branched, annual, erect herb, 30-90 cm high; branches sharply quadrangular. Leaves up to 6.25 cm long, lanceolate, acute. Flowers small, solitary, distant, in lax axillary and terminal panicles; corolla 1.25 cm, 2-lipped, white, spotted rose-purple. Capsules 18 mm long, linear-oblong, acute.

Using Information:

The plant is febrifuge, hypoglycemic, stomachic, tonic, alterative, anthelmintic and cholagogue; used in general debility, dysentery and certain forms of dyspepsia and in liver complaints, mainly of children. It is a domestic medicine for flatulence and diarrhoea of children. The plant is also used in spleen complaints, colic, strangulation of intestine, constipation, diarrhoea, cholera, phthisis and consumption. Juice of the leaves together with spices, such as cardamoms, cloves, cinnamons, etc., is dried in sun, and made into little globules, which are prescribed for infants to relieve griping, irregular stools and loss of appetite. The plant is used for malaria in Rema-Kalenga. The Garo of Madhupur prescribes leaf juice against fever, headache and vertigo.

Leaf extract is hypotensive. Powdered stem showed antifertility activity in male mice (Asolkar et al., 1992). Andrographolide contained in the plant possesses strong anti-inflammatory and also cytotoxic activity (Ghani, 2003). Both aqueous and ethanolic extract of the plant possesses significant blood sugar lowering effect in both glucose-loaded and alloxen induced diabetic rat (Hossain et al., 2007).

Chemical Constituents:

The plant contains principally a resinous bitter sunstance, kalmeghin, the diterpens, andrographolide, andrographiside and neoandrographolide. Extract of the plant also contains 14-deoxy-11-oxoandrographolide, 14-deoyandrographolide, 14-didehydro-andrographolide, epigenin ethers and other flavonoids, phenols and stigmasterol. Leaves contain ß-sitosterol glucoside, andrographolide and panicolide, polyphenols caffeic and chlorogenic acids and a mixture of dicaffeoylquinic acid. Roots contain the flavones, andrographin and panicolinn. The flavonoid glycoside, dihydorxy, dimethoxy-flavone glucoside and diterpene glucoside- neoandrographolide have also been isolated from the roots. Pigments andrographin and panicolin have also been isolated from roots. The ash contains considarable quantities of sodium chloride and potassium salts (Ghani, 2003).

ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Ness.
ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Ness.

Distribution:

Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts.