ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.

Family: Anacardiaceae

Bengali/Vernacular Name: Kaju, Kajubadam, Hijlibadam.

English Name: Cashew Nut, Goa-almond, Ceylon mango.

Description of the Plant:

A small or medium-sized, evergreen tree with much spreading branches, which forms a large crown. Leaves 10-20 cm long, coriaceous, obovate. Flowers small in terminal panicle, 16-25 cm long. Fruit reniform, 2.5 cm, on a pyriform fleshy receptacle.

Using Information:

The bark is said to have alterative and astringent properties. Bark tea is used for diarrhoea and dysentery. The root is considered purgative and the fruit anti-diarrhoeal. The kernel is nutritious, demulcent and emollient. The tar from the seed coat is recommended as an external application in leprosy, ringworm, corns, cracks on foot heells and obstinate ulcers; and requires to be used with caution, as it is a powerful rubefacient and vesicant. Leaf tea is used for diarrhoea, indigestion and stomachache. Liquor made from cashew apple is valued as diuretic.

Bark extract is antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic. Casuenut shell oil is mosquito larvicide; addition of 5% oil to kerosene or high speed diesel oil enhances antimosquito activity. Hexane extract of the shell is molluscicide for snails and toxic to fish (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Chemical Constituents:

Bark contains tannin and gum. Fruit shell contains gum, oil, alkyl phenols, ancardic acid, cardol, anacardein, lipids, biflavonoid glycoside, occidentoside and ellagic acid (kajidin), syringic and gallic acids. Leaves and flowers contain ployphenols. Leaves contain P-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, gentisic and gallic acids along with glucosides, rhamosides, arabinosides and xylosides of kaempferol and quercitol. Husk contains catechin, gallic acid, caffeic acid and quinic acid. Cashew nut lipids contain squalene, cyclorartenol, ß-amyrin, ß-sitosterol and campesterol. Cashew apple contains vit. C and vit. E; also polyphenols (Ghani, 2003; Asolkar et al., 1992; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1993).

ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.
ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L.

Distribution:

Cultivated in Chittagong Hill Tracts in limited scale.