Family: Rutaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Bel.
Tribal name: Shephalbupaong (Tipra); War-e-si Apang (Marma).
English name: Wood Apple, Bel Fruit.

Description of the plant:
AEGLE MARMELOS (L.) Corr. is a small or medium-sized deciduous tree, armed with many axillary, straight, strong, long spines. Leaves 3-foliolate, rarely 5-foliolate. Flowers greenish-white, in short axillary panicles. Fruit large, globose, with woody rind.

Using information:
Fruits are astringent, digestive, tonic, stomachic, laxative and is belived to be an invaluable remedy in obstinate cases of chronic diarrhoea and dysentery and in loss of appetite. Unripe fruit is used in diarrhoea, dysentery and ripe fruit for constipation. Dried slice of unripe fruit is regarded as astringent, digestive and stomachic, and is prescribed in diarrhoea and dysentery.

The unripe fruit burnt in fire is taken in empty stomach for the treatment of chronic dysentery. Fresh leaves are astringent, digestive, laxative and febrifuge; useful in ophthalmia and inflammations; fresh juice is very useful in catarrh and feverishness; with black pepper it is given in anasarca and jaundice. Root bark is useful in hypochondriasis, melancholia and palpitation of heart.

Seed extracts and crude alkaloids posseses moderate antifungal and antibacterial properties (Ahmed et al., 1998). Seed oil possesses antibacterial properties. EtOH(50%) extract of the fruits and roots are hypoglycaemic and spasmogenic. Alkaloid present in leaves is efficacious against asthma. Leaf oil possesses broad spectrum antifungal properties (Asolkar et al., 1992).

Aegle Marmelos

Chemical constituents:
Fruit pulp contains carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins, essential oil, alcohols, ester, terpene, marmesin, scopoletin, tannins. It also contains alkaloids, O-methylhalfordinol and isopentylethalfordinol and an essential oil containing phellandrene and alloimperation and ß-sitoterol. Fruit contains psoralen, tamic acid, agelinol, furanocoumarin, marmelide. Ripe fruit contains xanthotoxol, scoparone, scopoletin, umbelliferone, marmesin, skimmin and ß-sitosterol glucoside. Marmin, γ-sitosterol and aegeline, identified as N-ß-hydroxy-p-methoxy phenylecinnamide have been isolated from leaves. Leaves also contain alkaloids, marmelosins and agelenine, marmesin, rutin, polyphenolic compounds, sitosterols and essential oil containing of α & ß-phellandrene.

Root contains xanthotoxin, 6,7-di-Ome-coumarin, scopoletin, tembamide, umbelliferone, marmesin, marmin, skimmianine, glycoside skimming. A phenolic alkaloid characterized as 1-phenyl-7-hydroxy tetrahydroquinazolin-4-one has been obtained from roots. Bark contains ß-sitoterol, umbelliferone, lupeol, coumarin and alkaloids, aegeline (=fagarine), skimmianine, marmesin, aurapten, marmin, and umbelliferone. Roots contain scoparone, scopoletin, marmesin (Ghani, 1998; Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990).

Cultivated all over Bangladesh.