ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) Willd. ex Del. ssp. INDICA (Benth.) Brenan.

A. arabica (Lam.) Willd.
Family: Mimosaceae

Bengali/vernacular name: Babla, Kikor.
English name: Indian Gum-arabic Tree, Babul Tree.

Description of the plant:
ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) Willd. ex Del. is a medium-sized, thorny, evergreen tree with spreading crown; thorns straight, 2-5 cm long, white. Leaves 2-pinnate, pinnae 6-12, leaflets small, 20-40. Flowers yellow, in globose axillary heads. Fruits moniliform, compressed, constricted at the sutures between the seeds.

Using information:
Bark is anthelmintic, demulcent and astringent to the bowels; useful in cough, bronchitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, biliousness, burning sensation, piles and leucoderma; good in ascites and prolapsus ani. Gum is expectorant, tonic to the liver, antipyretic, astringent to the bowels, antidysenteric, styptic; useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes mellitus and sexual debility; cures sore throat, lung troubles, cough, piles, burns. The leaves are astringent, tonic to the liver and brain, antipyretic; cures leucoderma, gonorrhoea, strangury. The tender leaves beaten into pulp is given in diarrhoea as an astringent; decoction is useful in cystitis, vaginities, . Pods are prescribed in dysentery, ophthalmia and cough. Flowers are tonic and a good cure for insanity.

EtOH(50%) extract is antiprotozoal, hypotensive and spasmolytic. Decoction of the bark is hypoglycaemic in alloxan diabetic rabbits. Seeds are hypoglycaemic in normal rats but no such effect in diabetic rats (Asolkar et al., 1992).


Acacia Nilotica
ACACIA NILOTICA (L.) Willd. ex Del. ssp. INDICA (Benth.) Brenan.


Chemical constituents:
The plant yields a gum containing arabin as the chief constituent. Other constituents of the gum include tannic and gallic acids, cresol (an antiseptic), methyl salicylate, complex salts of calcium, magnesium and potassium, galactose, l-arabinose, l-rhamnose and 4 aldobiouronic acids. Bark of stems, leaves, roots, pods and heartwood contain several polyphenols, tannins, gallic acid; octacosanol, betulin, flavonoids, α- amyrin and ß-sitosterol. Enzymes like oxidases and pectinases also occur in the wood (Ghani, 2003). A new arabinobiose -2-O- ß-L-arabinofuranosyl-L-arabinose along with known 3- O- ß-L-arabinopyranosyl-L-arabinose, quercetin, (+) catechin, (-) epicatechin,(+) dicatechin and (+) leucocyanidin have also been isolated from gum.

Degraded gum composed of recurring units comprising ten galactose residues and four glucuronic acid residues. 30 phenolic compounds have been isolated from tanning extracts of bark. Epigallocatechin, tannin; polyphenolic phlobaphenes consisting mainly of catechol and pyrogallol have also been isolated from bark. Stearic acid, kaempferol-3-glucoside, isoquercitrin, leucocyanidin and an unidentified phenolic compound have been isolated from flowers (Rastogi & Mehrotra, 1990 & 93; Asolkar et al., 1992).

Distribution:
Bogra, Faridpur, Jessore, Kushtia, Pabna, Rajshahi also planted by the road sides and embankments throughout the country.